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Vol. 34, No. 8(3), S&M3042

Notice of retraction
Vol. 32, No. 8(2), S&M2292

Print: ISSN 0914-4935
Online: ISSN 2435-0869
Sensors and Materials
is an international peer-reviewed open access journal to provide a forum for researchers working in multidisciplinary fields of sensing technology.
Sensors and Materials
is covered by Science Citation Index Expanded (Clarivate Analytics), Scopus (Elsevier), and other databases.

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Sensors and Materials, Volume 18, Number 4 (2006)
Copyright(C) MYU K.K.
pp. 215-229
S&M644 Research Paper
Published: 2006

Detecting Embedded Objects Using Haptics with Applications in Artificial Palpation of Tumors [PDF]

Siamak Najarian, Javad Dargahi and Vahid Mirjalili

(Received August 8, 2005; Accepted April 14, 2006)

Keywords: breast tumors, tactile sensor, noninvasive examination, mammography

In this paper, we describe a new method of measuring the stiffness of embedded objects. A tailor-made tactile probe equipped with a polyvinylidene fluoride-based (PVDF-based) piezoelectric sensor was used in the experimental tests. The structure of the probe is such that it deforms in specific ways when pressed against a large object. Two elastic materials, in the form of two concentric cylinders, with different moduli of elasticity compose the major structure of the sensor assembly. Young's modulus for a hidden object located inside a block is determined experimentally when the probe is applied to the outside of a rubberlike matrix. This matrix simulates the human organs (such as the breast). We propose a new analytical method that can be employed as a predictive tool for determining the stiffness and certain details of the geometry of embedded objects. In addition to the analytical method, a numerical approach is utilized in parallel, which is based on finite element analysis. The difference between the two theoretical methods is proven to be very small, and for all practical purposes, they can both be considered effective in our research. A reasonably good correspondence between the analytical and numerical approaches is obtained. The findings of this work have practical applications in detecting cancerous tumors in breast examination procedures.

Corresponding author: Javad Dargahi


Cite this article
Siamak Najarian, Javad Dargahi and Vahid Mirjalili, Detecting Embedded Objects Using Haptics with Applications in Artificial Palpation of Tumors, Sens. Mater., Vol. 18, No. 4, 2006, p. 215-229.



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