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Vol. 32, No. 8(2), S&M2292

Print: ISSN 0914-4935
Online: ISSN 2435-0869
Sensors and Materials
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Time Series and Mel-frequency Cepstrum Coefficient Analyses of Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus Vascular Sound and Flow Velocity Sensed by Transcranial/Retroauricular Doppler Ultrasound Approaches [PDF]

Yue-Lin Hsieh, Yue-Da Hsieh, and Wuqing Wang

(Received March 29, 2022; Accepted May 16, 2022)

Keywords: pulsatile tinnitus, correlation analysis, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, time series, Mel-frequency

Venous pulsatile tinnitus (PT) arises from the motion of blood flow. However, the correlation between flow velocity and amplitude remains undiscovered. In this study, retroauricular color-coded Doppler (RCCD) and transcranial color-coded Doppler (TCCD) ultrasound examination techniques were deployed to assess the hemoacoustics at the ipsilateral internal jugular vein (IJV), intradiverticular, mainstream sinus, and transverse sinus regions. Auto- and cross-correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlations between flow velocity and amplitude. Furthermore, the Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients were calculated, and the Mel-spectrogram was used to exhibit the human perception of PT. The mainstream sinus flow had the highest coefficient (cross-correlation coefficient = 0.781) among the sensed locations. The cross-correlation coefficient of the IJV was the second largest and close to that of the mainstream sinus flow. The transverse sinus flow had the lowest cross-correlation coefficient. Additionally, the transverse sinus septum was visualized for the first time using the RCCD technique in this study. In conclusion, cross-correlation analysis indicates that the amplitude of vascular sound is highly correlated to the vascular flow velocity. The Mel-spectrogram demonstrates the outcome of the human perception of PT, and its use can be extended to future psychoacoustic studies.

Corresponding author: Wuqing Wang




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